What is a Robot?
Imagine your computer with hands and legs, if it can be programmed move and do some thing thats ROBOT.
What is Robotics?
Robotics is the technology that deals with the design of Robots.
In general Robotics is integration of systems (actuators and sensors) to achieve planned and accurate motion.
Generally people think all robots will look like human being. Human look-alike robots are called humanoids, there are several type of robots present in real world other than humanoids.
Robotics – Integration of Many technologies
Robotics uses so many technologies which includes mechanical, electronics, software, bio mechanics, control systems, machine design, vision, Artificial Intelligence, Neural networks and cognitive science.
Until now there are no clear boundaries about which technology will play a major role in a particular robot. All depends on the type of Robot designed.
Types of Robots
Used for machine tending, welding, painting and Assembling etc
Used for entertaining human begins, it can play games etc.
Used for clean floors, cook surveillance and security purpose.
Mostly this will be placed in the dangerous environments; humans operate these robots via communication protocols.
This is nothing but Automatic Guided Vehicles used for transporting materials, this always do non repetitive tasks.
Job Opportunities in Robotics:
Do you think robotics sound interesting but the scope is limited when it comes to career point of view? Think again after reading the following points.
Robots are used widely in mass production of goods where it can replace human beings who are working in packing, manufacturing and assembling department.
Today, Robots can perform job better than human beings.
Robots are used to handle the jobs in dirty, dangerous and dull environment where human don’t like to work.
Building a Robot:
Take something; a mechanical device it can be wood, metal or plastic; this is called as actuator. Actuator means muscles for a Robots. It is meant for movement.
Actuator can be made using pneumatic, hydraulic or electronics technology.
Pneumatic Actuators-> Movement caused by air.
Hydraulic Actuators -> Movement caused by liquid
Electronics Actuators -> Movement caused by magnetism and electronics
Robot senses the environment using sensors.
There are so many sensors available for this purpose. Position sensors, Rotary sensors, optical sensors, ultra sonic sensors, photo electric sensors, vision sensors, linear sensors, capacitive sensors, inductive sensors, etc., Let us see more about these sensors in the forth coming tutorials.
Robot uses mechanical device (actuator) for movement and sensors to find out where the actuator is? But who is responsible to decide where the actuator (mechanical device) should move and who monitors sensors? Even though the sensor gives the feedback it should be received properly and processed by someone who is intelligent! Based on the feedback given by the sensor the operation is performed by controlling the actuators, this done is done by Controllers, there are again several systems or technologies available to do this job. PLCs, microcontrollers, microprocessors, etc based on the requirement of the design these components can be chosen. Controllers are the brain of Robots; we can feed programs into it and make it work as per the functionality or operations of the robot.
Boundary of technologies in Robotics:
Mechanical Domain: Pneumatic and Hydraulic Actuators are related to mechanical domain.
Electronics Domain: Controllers, motors Actuators and Sensors are related to electronics domain.
Software Domain : Programming the controllers for driving the actuators and measuring the feedback from sensors are related to software domain.
There are several sub domains, under these major domains;
Mechanical Domain: Biomechanics, Mechanics, Dynamics, Kinematics and Machine design.
Electronics Domain: Control systems, Sensors, PLC, Embedded systems, VLSI, DSP technologies.
Software Domain: Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Vision, Cognitive science and NLP.
Author : Purushothaman Ranganathan
Founder and CEO – EPRLABs
TIPS FOR BETTER SOLDERING
STEP 1. Warm up the soldering iron
STEP 2. Thoroughly coat the soldering tip in solder. It is very important to cover the entire tip.
STEP3. Component Placement:
Bend the leads as necessary and insert the component through the proper holes on the board. To hold the part in place while you are soldering, you may want to bend the leads on the bottom of the board. Components with short leads such as IC sockets can be held in place with a little masking tape or you can bend the leads down to clamp onto the PC board pads.
Step 4. Apply Solder To The Joint:
Once the component lead and solder pad has heated up, you are ready to apply solder. Touch the tip of the strand of solder to the component lead and solder pad, but not the tip of the iron. If everything is hot enough, the solder should flow freely around the lead and pad.
STEP 5.Prepare Wires For Soldering:
The wires that are going to be soldered need to be prepared beforehand. Strip 1/4″ of insulation from the end of the wire, and tightly twist the exposed strands.
STEP 6. Soldering a Wire with peripherals:
Heat the area of the wire to be tinned by placing the tip of the soldering iron along the side of the exposed strands.
Apply solder to the wire (not to the soldering iron tip!). When the wire end reaches a sufficient temperature, the solder will melt and wire will draw the molten solder up into the stands. This helps in easy soldering and requires low amount of lead for soldering.
SOLDERING WIRE WITH PERIPHERAL
The insulted wire should cover the solder part. The copper, iron part should not be visible.
The length of the wire must be same as the distance between the two points to be connected.
Tips & Warnings:
1. Clean the soldering tip with a sponge between every application.
2. Rosin-core solder is necessary because the chemical reaction resulting from the application of heat cleans the connection to allow the proper flow of electrical energy.
3. Soldering is intended to provide an electrical connection rather than a mechanical weld.
4. Avoid damaging a soldering iron by knocking it against a solid object to clear the tip. Use a sponge instead.
5. Filing or sanding the soldering iron tip will damage the plating. Clean the tip with a sponge and re-tin the tip regularly.
6. Do not use a high-wattage soldering tool for small joint work; the heat may damage the circuit on which you are working.
7. Before cleaning a circuit board with alcohol or acetone when you intend to solder wires to it, you should test a small area to make certain the fluid will not damage the board.